Linux süsteemi arhitektuur

Allikas: Teadmusbaas

Teema 101: Süsteemi arhitektuur:

101.1 Riistvaraseadete määramine ja seadistamine - Kaal: 2

Kirjeldus: Kandidaat peaks olema võimeline määratlema ja seadistama peamisi süsteemi riistvara osi

Võtmeteadmised:
  • Võimaldama ja keelama integreeritud välis- ja väljundseadmeid;
  • Eristama masssalvestusseadmete erinevaid tüüpe;
  • Määratlema seadme riistvaralisi resursse;
  • Teadma tööriistu ja rakendusi riistvara seadete info loetlemiseks (nt lsusb, lspci jne);
  • Teadma tööriistu ja rakendusi USB seadmetega töötamiseks;.
  • Põhimõtteline sysfs, udev ja dbus mõistmine;

Alljärgnev on kasutatud failide, terminite ja rakenduste osaline loend:

  • /sys/
  • /proc/
  • /dev/
  • modprobe
  • lsmod
  • lspci
  • lsusb


101.2 Süsteemi alglaadimine - Kaal: 3

Kirjeldus: Kandidaat peab olema suuteline juhendama süsteemi läbi alglaadimisprotsessi etappide.

Võtmeteadmised:
  • Alglaadurile tavaliste käskude andmine ja kerneli valikute määramine alglaadimisprotsessis;
  • Demonstreerige BIOS / UEFI alglaadimisjärjestuse tundmist alglaadimise lõpuleviimiseks;
  • SysVinit ja systemd tundmine;
  • Upstart teadmine ja kasutamine;
  • Alglaadimissündmuste logifailide kontrollimine;

Alljärgnev on kasutatud failide, terminite ja rakenduste osaline loend:

  • dmesg
  • journalctl
  • BIOS
  • UEFI
  • bootloader
  • kernel
  • initramfs
  • init
  • SysVinit
  • systemd
101.3 Muutke töötasemeid (runlevels) / alglaadimise sihtkohti ja seisake või algväärtustage süsteem - Kaal: 3

Kirjeldus: Kandidaat peaks olema võimeline haldama SysVinit töötasemeid või systemd alglaadimise sihtkohta süsteemi käivitamisel. Ülesanne sisaldab lülitumist üksikkasutaja reziimi, seiskamist või süsteemi algväärtustamist (reboot). Kandidaadi peaksid olema võimelised teavitama kasutajaid enne töötaseme (kasutajamoe) või alglaadimise sihtkoha vahetust ja korrektselt lõpetama protsesse. Ülesanne sisaldab ka SysVinit töötaseme vaikeväärtuse seadmist või alglaadimise sihtkoha vahetust. Ülesanne sisaldab ka Upstart kasutamise, mis on SysVinit või systemd alternatiiv, teadlikkust.

Võtmeteadmised:
  • Töötaseme või alglaadimise sihtkoha vaikeväärtuse seadastamine;
  • Töötasemete ka üksikkasutaja mood või alglaadimise sihtkoha vahetus;
  • Seiskamine ja taaskäivitamine käsurealt;
  • Kasutajate teavitamine peatsetest töötasemete või alglaadimise sihtkohtade vahetusest või muudest peamistest süsteemi sündmustest;
  • Protsesside korrektne lõpetamine;
  • Teadlikkus acpid teenusest;

Alljärgnev on kasutatud failide, terminite ja rakenduste osaline loend:

  • /etc/inittab
  • shutdown
  • init
  • /etc/init.d/
  • telinit
  • systemd


Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management 102.1 Design hard disk layout Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks. Tailor the design to the intended use of the system. Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting. Knowledge of basic features of LVM. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

/ (root) filesystem /var filesystem /home filesystem /boot filesystem EFI System Partition (ESP) swap space mount points partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options. Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy. Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2. Interact with the boot loader. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf grub-install grub-mkconfig MBR


102.3 Manage shared libraries Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Identify shared libraries. Identify the typical locations of system libraries. Load shared libraries. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

ldd ldconfig /etc/ld.so.conf LD_LIBRARY_PATH


102.4 Use Debian package management Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages. Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed. Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed). Awareness of apt. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

/etc/apt/sources.list dpkg dpkg-reconfigure apt-get apt-cache


102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM and Zypper.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM and Zypper. Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures. Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from. Awareness of dnf. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

rpm rpm2cpio /etc/yum.conf /etc/yum.repos.d/ yum zypper

102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should understand the implications of virtualization and cloud computing on a Linux guest system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Understand the general concept of virtual machines and containers. Understand common elements virtual machines in an IaaS cloud, such as computing instances, block storage and networking. Understand unique properties of a Linux system which have to changed when a system is cloned or used as a template. Understand how system images are used to deploy virtual machines, cloud instances and containers. Understand Linux extensions which integrate Linux with a virtualization product. Awareness of cloud-init. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

Virtual machine Linux container Application container Guest drivers SSH host keys D-Bus machine id Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands 103.1 Work on the command line Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line. Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables. Use and edit command history. Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

bash echo env export pwd set unset type which man uname history .bash_history Quoting


103.2 Process text streams using filters Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

bzcat cat cut head less md5sum nl od paste sed sha256sum sha512sum sort split tail tr uniq wc xzcat zcat


103.3 Perform basic file management Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Copy, move and remove files and directories individually. Copy multiple files and directories recursively. Remove files and directories recursively. Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands. Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time. Usage of tar, cpio and dd. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

cp find mkdir mv ls rm rmdir touch tar cpio dd file gzip gunzip bzip2 bunzip2 xz unxz file globbing


103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error. Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command. Use the output of one command as arguments to another command. Send output to both stdout and a file. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

tee xargs


103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Run jobs in the foreground and background. Signal a program to continue running after logout. Monitor active processes. Select and sort processes for display. Send signals to processes. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

& bg fg jobs kill nohup ps top free uptime pgrep pkill killall watch screen tmux


103.6 Modify process execution priorities Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Know the default priority of a job that is created. Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default. Change the priority of a running process. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

nice ps renice top


103.7 Search text files using regular expressions Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements. Understand the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. Understand the concepts of special characters, character classes, quantifiers and anchors. Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content. Use regular expressions to delete, change and substitute text. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

grep egrep fgrep sed regex(7)


103.8 Basic file editing Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Navigate a document using vi. Understand and use vi modes. Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text in vi. Awareness of Emacs, nano and vim. Configure the standard editor. Terms and Utilities:

vi /, ? h,j,k,l i, o, a d, p, y, dd, yy ZZ, :w!, :q! EDITOR

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 104.1 Create partitions and filesystems Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manage MBR and GPT partition tables Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as: ext2/ext3/ext4 XFS VFAT exFAT

Basic feature knowledge of Btrfs, including multi-device filesystems, compression and subvolumes. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

fdisk gdisk parted mkfs mkswap


104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Verify the integrity of filesystems. Monitor free space and inodes. Repair simple filesystem problems. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

du df fsck e2fsck mke2fs tune2fs xfs_repair xfs_fsr xfs_db


104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manually mount and unmount filesystems. Configure filesystem mounting on bootup. Configure user mountable removable filesystems. Use of labels and UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems. Awareness of systemd mount units. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

/etc/fstab /media/ mount umount blkid lsblk


104.4 Removed


104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories. Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security. Know how to change the file creation mask. Use the group field to grant file access to group members. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

chmod umask chown chgrp


104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Create links. Identify hard and/or soft links. Copying versus linking files. Use links to support system administration tasks. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

ln ls


104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS. Find files and commands on a Linux system. Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

find locate updatedb whereis which type /etc/updatedb.conf